Saturday, 14 April 2012

Hedieh Tehrani


Hedieh Tehrāni, هديه تهرانی‎, born 25 June 1972, Tehran, Iran) is a Crystal-Simorgh winning Iranian actress. She is most noted for willingness to play mysterious, stony-faced and cold-hearted women. She began her acting career with Masoud Kimiai's Soltan (1996). For her appearance in Ghermez (1998) she received the Crystal Simorgh for Best Actress from the 17th Fajr Film Festival.
Hediyeh Tehrani received the second Crystal Simorgh of her career from the 24th Fajr Film Festival, for Fireworks Wednesday. In 2006 she appeared in Bahman Ghobadi's Niwemang. The film received the Gold Shell of the 54th San Sebastián International Film Festival.




Mohammad Reza Sharifinia and Azita Hajian were the first ones to propose her a role for The Day of Incident.She gave a test for acting in Rooz-e Vaghe'e (aka The Day of Incident) but refused to cooperate and the role went to Ladan Mostofi. Before acting in Sultan, she refused to play a part in Leila directed by famous Iranian director Dariush Mehrjui. Kianoosh Ayyari,then proposed her for acting in his movie, Boodan ya Naboodan and again she refused to play. Masoud Kimiayi was the first director who succeeded to have her playing in his film Sultan.


Golshifteh Farahani


Golshifteh Farahani,: گُلشیفتِه فَراهانی‎, born July 10, 1983) is a Crystal-Simorgh winning Iranian actress and pianist.
Golshifteh Farahani was born on 10 July 1983 in Tehran, the daughter of actor/theater director Behzad Farahani and Fahime Rahiminia and sister of actress Shaghayegh Farahani. She started studying music and playing the piano at age of five. At 12, she entered a music school in Tehran. At 14, Golshifteh was cast as the lead in Dariush Mehrjui's The Pear Tree for which she won the Crystal Roc for Best Actress from the International Section of the 16th Fajr International Film Festival in Tehran.
Career


Since then she has acted in 20 films, many of which have received international awards. For Boutique she won the Best Actress award from the 26th Nantes Three Continents Festival (France). In recent years she has acted in movies by some of Iran's best directors: Dariush Mehrjui's controversial film Santouri (The Santoor Player) and Bahman Ghobadi's Half Moon (winner of the Golden Shell at the 2006 San Sebastian Film Festival), the late Rasool Mollagholipoor's M for Mother (Iran's nominee for the 2008 Academy Awards for the Best Foreign Language Film category) for which she won the special prize by the jury for the Best Actress from the 37th Roshd International Film Festival which was held in Tehran in 2007 and Asghar Farhadi's "About Elly" (Silver Bear for Best Director from Berlin Film festival and Best film from Tribeca Film festival). Golshifteh is highly involved in environmental activities and has also become the ambassador for fighting tuberculosis in Iran. Subsequent to her involvement in the U.S. film Body of Lies, she reportedly had been prevented by Iranian authorities from leaving Iran, but this was denied by her colleagues and she later appeared at the Body of Lies premiere in the U.S. As her last acting experience in Iran, she appeared in About Elly directed by Asghar Farhadi. The film has been selected at the Tribeca Film Festival and won a Silver Bear at the Berlin International Film Festival. She now lives in Paris, France with her husband Amin Mahdavi. In Iran, Golshifteh was part of an underground rock band named "Kooch Neshin" (Nomads) which won the 2nd Tehran Avenue underground rock competition. Since leaving Iran, Golshifteh has been able to continue her music career as well. She has teamed up with another exiled Iranian musician Mohsen Namjoo. Their new album  was released in October 2009. They have also started an international tour with 2 concerts in Italy. Since Golshifteh moved to Paris she has been working with directors Roland Joffe, Hiner Saleem and Marjan Satrapi. She has also been a member of the international jury at the 63rd Locarno Film Festival.
Her upcoming movie is Rumi's Kimia, a film in development which is directed by Dariush Mehrjui starring Golshifteh Farahani and based on a novel.


Exile from Iran


In January 2012, Golshifteh was banned from returning to her homeland after posing nude for a French magazine as a protest against strictures against women in Iranian society. Britain's Daily Telegraph reported that government officials told Farahani, 28, that "Iran does not need any actors or artists. You may offer your artistic services somewhere else." The picture on her Facebook page garnered over 14,000 likes and 1,500 shares, initiating a debate on the role of women in Iranian society. She also appeared topless in a short black-and-white film by Jean-Baptiste Mondino, called Corps et Âmes, or Bodies and Souls.In a past interview with Screen Comment she said, "I don’t consider myself a political activist. I try to say what I have to say through art.” 

Half Moon (film)


Half Moon,  Nîwe Mang/Nîvê Heyvê, is a 2006 film written and directed by the Iranian Kurdish filmmaker Bahman Ghobadi. Half Moon is a joint production of Iran, Austria, France and Iraq. This movie was commissioned by the New Crowned Hope festival, a celebration of the 250th birthday of Amadeus Mozart, and the story plot has been inspired in part by the Requiem.




Mamo, an old Kurdish musician in the twilight of his life, plans to perform one final concert in Iraqi Kurdistan. The village's elderly warn him that as the moon becomes full, something awful would happen to him and urge him not to proceed with his plan. After several months of trying to overcome the red-tape, he begins a long and dangerous journey along with his sons. Along the way, the group picks up female singer Hesho who resides in a village of 1,334 exiled women singers. This adds to the complications of the trip as Hesho did not have authorization to go into Iraq. Despite all these obstacles, Mamo is determined to continue with his journey across the border.


Critical reception


Critics gave the film generally favorable reviews. As of December 14, 2007, the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported that 100% of critics gave the film positive reviews, based on 23 reviews. On Metacritic, the film had an average score of 72 out of 100, based on 9 reviews.


Awards


People's choice Award, International Competition, Istanbul International Film Festival, 2007.
Best Cinematography, San Sebastián International Film Festival, 2006.
FIPRESCI Prize, San Sebastián International Film Festival, 2006.
Golden Seashell, San Sebastián International Film Festival, 2006.

Nawshirwan Mustafa


Nawshirwan Mustafa (Kurdish: Newşîrwan Mistefa) is the General Coordinator (رێکخەری گشتی / rêkxerî giştî) of the Movement for Change and the leader of the official opposition in the Kurdistan Region.


Nawshirwan Mustafa was born in Silemani, Kurdistan Region 1944, the eldest of two sons of Mustafa Émin, Mustafa's grandfather Émin Khider was a financier of the Kingdom of Kurdistan and it's government according to the newspaper Pêşkewtin. Nawshirwan whose name means the immortal soul, was named by his father after the twentieth Sassanid Emperor Khusro I Anōšīravān (dadgar). Silemani has been the seat of the Mustafa family since the city was founded in 1784. Unlike Kurdistan's other prominent political leaders Masoud Barzani and Jalal Talabani, Mustafa hails from a city not a village and is not a member of a tribe.
Mustafa attended the Royal King Faisal school at Silemani and was also taught foreign languages by private tutors at an early age, he went onto study at Baghdad University and then later at Vienna University.
Mustafa speaks in his native language Kurdish both Sorani and Kurmanji and is fluent in Arabic, Persian, English and German.




Secretary General Komalai Ranjdaran 1970-1992
Commander in Chief of Peshmerga Forces 1976-1992
Deputy Secretary General Patriotic Union of Kurdistan 1976-2006
Leader of the Movement for Change 2009–present


Mustafa joined the KDP at the age of 17 while still at high school, he rapidly climbed the ranks and was appointed the head of the KDP youth branch, and was later offered the post of head of the KDP branch of Sulaymaniyah by its then party president Mustafa Barzani, however Nawshirwan flatly refused the offer and resigned from the KDP. Mustafa cites differences in opinion over the approach as to how Kurdish independence should be brought about as the reason for the fallout between himself and the KDP in his biography[citation needed]. Before his resignation Mustafa had organised cells of sympathisers who would also leave the KDP along with himself, these cells would later go on to constitute some of the members of his future political party Komalai Ranjdaran.


Mustafa founded the Komalai Ranjdaran party in 1970[citation needed] and became its Secretary General in the same year. Komala began as a secret society holding meetings in safe houses and producing propaganda which was spread through there underground network across Kurdistan, the organisation was sometimes called "the brotherhood" by its members.


Mustafa was in his final year of studies at Vienna University when the Barzani rebellion collapsed. After talks with Jalal Talabani, they decided that a new Kurdish movement needed to be organized to fill the vacuum. He made his way to Damascus where a number of meetings between prominent Kurdish politicians about the future of the Kurdish resistance were taking place. The result of these meetings was the foundation of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, an umbrella organization. At the meeting it was announced that Jalal Talabani would become the Secretary General and Nawshirwan the deputy Secretary General. In an understanding between the two leaders it was decided that Nawshirwan would lead and organize the movement in Kurdistan while Talabani would publicize and champion the cause.




Following his return, Mustafa soon took over the leadership of the Komalai Ranjdaran party becoming its Secretary General, which he placed in the Patriotic Union. Jalal Talabani who led Shoresh Garan also placed his party in the Patriotic Union and a number of smaller parties followed suit. This move by them echoed the agreement which they had formulated in exile, thus leading to the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan. However, these party's would continue to act largely autonomously within the PUK and it was only in 1991 that they fully integrated into one single party, when Nawshirwan resigned from his post as Secretary General of Komala while still retaining the post of deputy secretary general of the PUK, and dissolved the Komalai Ranjdaran (which compiled over 100% of the PUK membership) to increase the unity within the PUK and allow for the transition of power from the Peshmerga (the military wing of the PUK) to the civilian population.

Kurdish people

Kurdish people, or Kurds, کورد , are an Iranic people native to the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a region known as Kurdistan, which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. They speak the Kurdish language, which is a member of the Iranian branch of Indo-European languages. The Kurds number about 30 million, the majority living in the Middle East, with significant Kurdish diaspora communities in the cities of western Turkey, in Armenia, Georgia, Israel, Azerbaijan, Russia, Lebanon and, in recent decades, some European countries and the United States.


 The Kurds are an indigenous ethnic minority in countries where the Kurdistan region is located, although they have enjoyed partial autonomy in Iraqi Kurdistan since 1991. An irredentist movement pushes for the creation of a Kurdish nation state.

Halabja


Halabja, هه‌ڵه‌بجه‎, is a Kurdish town in Northern Iraq, located about 150 miles (240 km) north-east of Baghdad and 8–10 miles from the Iranian border.
The town lies at the base of what is often referred to as the greater Hewraman region stretching across the Iran-Iraq border. The Kurds in the city of Halabja generally speak only the Sorani dialect of Kurdish, but some residents of the surrounding villages speak the Hewrami dialect.


Chemical attack


The Kurdish peshmerga guerrillas, supported by Iran, liberated Halabja in the final phase of the Iran-Iraq War. On March 16, 1988, after two days of conventional artillery attacks, Iraqi planes dropped gas canisters on the town The town and surrounding district were attacked with bombs, artillery fire, and chemical weapons, the latter of which proved most devastating. At least 5,000 people died as an immediate result of the chemical attack and it is estimated that a further 7,000 people were injured or suffered long term illness. Most of the victims of the attack on the town of Halabja were Kurdish civilians.
The attack is believed to have included the nerve agents Tabun, Sarin, and VX, as well as mustard gas. It is occasionally suggested that cyanide was also included among these chemical weapons, though this assertion has been cast into doubt, as cyanide is a natural byproduct of impure Tabun. The attack on Halabja took place amidst the infamous Anfal campaign, in which Saddam Hussein violently suppressed Kurdish revolts during the Iran-Iraq war. Saddam Hussein ordered the use of chemical weapons in attacking up to 24 villages in Kurdish areas in April 1987.


Before the war ended the Iraqis moved in on the ground and completely destroyed the town. In March 2010, the Iraqi High Criminal Court recognized the Halabja massacre as genocide; the decision was welcomed by the Kurdistan Regional Government.

Haditha


Haditha, حديثة, is a city in the western Iraqi Al Anbar Governorate, about 240 km northwest of Baghdad. It is a farming town situated on the Euphrates River at 34°08′23″N 42°22′41″E. Its population of around 100,000 people is predominantly Sunni Muslim Arabs. The city lies near the Buhayrat al Qadisiyyah, an artificial lake which was created by the building of the Haditha Dam, the largest hydroelectric facility in Iraq.


On 19 November 2005, 24 Iraqi noncombatants, including 11 women and children, were killed by 12 Marines from 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines. The US military is investigating these actions, a captain and a lieutenant colonel have been relieved of duty (another captain was relieved on the same day but not for the same incident. Some allege the massacre was in retribution for an incident earlier in the day in which US Marine Lance Corporal Miguel Terrazas was killed in a roadside bomb attack on Marines from Kilo Company. In August 2006 a commission reviewing the killings found probable cause for charging the Marines. The same day, one of the accused Marines sued Rep. John P. Murtha (D-Pa.) for libel because of Murtha's characterization of the incident saying the Marines killed the civilians "in cold blood." Depending on where and in what context Murtha's comments were made, he may be immune from suit. The Speech and Debate Clause of the United States Constitution protects Congressmen from liability for comments made during Congressional Debate.
A court martial on Wednesday acquitted a US Marine for any role in covering up the deaths of 24 civilians in Haditha in Iraq in 2005, while charges were dropped against five other marines in the affair. Lieutenant Andrew Grayson, 27, was declared "not guilty on all charges" by a jury, said a spokesman for the Camp Pendleton military base in southern California where the hearing started on May 28. Grayson had been charged with making false statements and attempting to fraudulently separate from the Marine Corps. He was also charged with obstruction of justice, but the military judge dismissed this charge Tuesday.


The change in U.S. strategy in late 2006 brought quick results to the Hadithah Triad. The U.S. Marines and their Iraqi and coalition allies had largely driven out insurgents by the summer of 2007.
Hadithah was much more secure and had recovered some of its prosperity by the summer of 2008. The progress was evident when an American Congressional Delegation visited the town in August and found full shops and friendly people.

Fallujah


Fallujah, الفلوجة‎, is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly 69 kilometers (43 mi) west of Baghdad on the Euphrates. Fallujah dates from Babylonian times and was host to important Jewish academies for many centuries.
The city grew from a small town in 1947 to a population of 326,471 inhabitants in 2010. Within Iraq, it is known as the "city of mosques" for the more than 200 mosques found in the city and surrounding villages.


Fallujah was one of the least affected areas of Iraq immediately after the 2003 invasion by the US-led Coalition. Iraqi Army units stationed in the area abandoned their positions and disappeared into the local population, leaving unsecured military equipment behind. Fallujah was also the site of a Ba'athist resort facility called 'Dreamland', located only a few kilometers outside the city proper.
The damage the city had avoided during the initial invasion was negated by damage from looters, who took advantage of the collapse of Saddam Hussein's regime. The looters targeted former government sites, the Dreamland compound, and the nearby military bases. Aggravating this situation was the proximity of Fallujah to the infamous Abu Ghraib prison, from which Saddam, in one of his last acts, had released all prisoners.
The new mayor of the city—Taha Bidaywi Hamed, selected by local tribal leaders—was strongly pro-American[citation needed]. When the US Army entered the town in April 2003, they positioned themselves at the vacated Ba'ath Party headquarters. A Fallujah Protection Force composed of local Iraqis was set up by the US-led occupants to help fight the rising resistance.
On the evening of April 28, 2003, a crowd of 200 people defied a curfew imposed by the Americans and gathered outside a secondary school used as a military HQ to demand its reopening. Soldiers from the 82nd Airborne stationed on the roof of the building fired upon the crowd, resulting in the deaths of 17 civilians and the wounding of over 70. The events leading up to the event are disputed. American forces claim they were responding to gunfire from the crowd, while the Iraqis involved deny this version, although conceding rocks were thrown at the troops. A protest against the killings two days later was also fired upon by US troops resulting in two more deaths.


Residents were allowed to return to the city in mid-December 2004 after undergoing biometric identification, provided they wear their ID cards all the time. US officials report that "more than half of Fallujah's 39,000 homes were damaged during Operation Phantom Fury, and about 10,000 of those were destroyed" while compensation amounts to 20 percent of the value of damaged houses, with an estimated 32,000 homeowners eligible, according to Marine Lt Col William Brown. According to NBC, 9,000 homes were destroyed, thousands more were damaged and of the 32,000 compensation claims only 2,500 have been paid as of April 14, 2005.
According to Mike Marqusee of Iraq Occupation Focus writing in the Guardian, "Fallujah's compensation commissioner has reported that 36,000 of the city's 50,000 homes were destroyed, along with 60 schools and 65 mosques and shrines".Reconstruction mainly consists of clearing rubble from heavily-damaged areas and reestablishing basic utility services. Ten per cent of the pre-offensive inhabitants had returned as of mid-January 2005, and 30% as of the end of March 2005. In 2006, some reports say two thirds have now returned and only 15 percent remain displaced on the outskirts of the city.
Pre-offensive inhabitant figures are unreliable; the nominal population was assumed to have been 250,000-350,000. Thus, over 150,000 individuals are still living as IDPs in tent cities or with relatives outside Fallujah or elsewhere in Iraq. Current estimates by the Iraqi Ministry of Interior and Coalition Forces put the city's population at over 350,000, possibly closing in on half a million.


In the aftermath of the offensive, relative calm was restored to Fallujah although almost-daily attacks against coalition forces resumed in 2005 as the population slowly trickled back into the city. From 2005-06, elements of the New Iraqi Army's 2nd and 4th brigades, 1st Division, occupied the city while the Marines maintained a small complex called "CMOC" at the city hall. The Iraqi units were aided by Military Transition Teams. Most Marine elements stayed outside of the city limits.

Dohuk, Iraq


Dohuk, دهوك, is the capital of Dahuk Governorate in Iraq. It has about 250.000 inhabitants, mostly consisting of Kurds, with an Assyrian minority. According to some sources, the name "Dohuk" comes from Kurmanji Kurdish meaning "small village".
The city is encircled by mountains along the Tigris river. Duhok has a growing tourist industry, its population having grown rapidly since the 1990s as the rural population moved to the cities. The University of Dohuk, founded in 1992, is a renowned center for teaching and research in Dohuk.
Dohuk Football Club (Kurdish: یانه‌یا وه‌رزشی یا دهوکێ, Arabic: نادي دهوك‎) is a sports club based in Dohuk, Iraq. They currently play in the Northern Division of the Iraqi Premier League. Duhok is considered one of the most successful teams in the Iraqi Kurdistan region and Iraq,In the 2009/2010 season Duhok FC made it to the final of iraq premier league and won it 1–0 against Talaba SC becoming the champions for the first time.


Basra


Basra, البصرة‎, is the capital of Basra Governorate, in southern Iraq near Kuwait and Iran. It had an estimated population of two million as of 2009. Basra is also Iraq's main port, although it does not have deep water access, which is handled at the port of Umm Qasr.
The city is part of the historic location of Sumer, the home of Sinbad the Sailor, and a proposed location of the Garden of Eden. It also played an important role in early Islamic history, being built in 636 CE, or 14 AH. It is Iraq's second largest and most populous city after Baghdad.


The old mosque of Basra, the first mosque in Islam outside the Arabian peninsula.
Sinbad Island is located in the center of Shatt Al-Arab near the Miinaalmakl and extends above the bridge Khaled and is a tourist landmark.
Sayab's house ruins is the most famous home of the poet Badr Shakir al-Sayyab. There is also a statue of Sayab, one of the statues in Basra done by the artist and sculptor nada' Kadhum located on al-Basrah Corniche, unveiled in 1972.
Basra sports city is the largest sport city in the Middle East, located on the Shatt al-Basra.
Palm tree forests, which are largely located on the shores of shatt-al Arab waterway especially in the nearby village of Abu Al-Khasib.
Corniche al-Basra is a street which runs on the shore of the Shatt al-Arab running from the Lion of Babylon square to the four palaces.
Basra International Hotel (formally known as Basra Sheraton Hotel), is located on the Corniche street. The only five star hotel in the city it is notable for its Shanasheel style exterior design. The hotel was heavily looted during the Iraq War, and it has been renovated recently.
Sayyed Ali al-Musawi Mosque or Mosque of the children of Amer, which is located in the city center on al-gazear street which was built for Shia Imami's leader sayyed Ali al-Moussawi in Iraq and neighboring countries.
Fun city of Basrah (now called Basra Land) is one of the oldest theme park entertainment cities in the south of the country and the largest involving a large number of games giants. It was damaged during the war, and is rebuilt now.
Akhora park, which is one of the city's old parks. It is located on al-Basra Street.
The four formal presidential palaces.
Latin church located on the 14th of July street.
Indian market (Amogaiz) which is one of the main bazaars in the city. It is called the Indian market due to Indian vendors, who were working here at the beginning of the last century.
Hanna-Sheikh bazaar, is an old market which was established by the powerful and famous Hanna-Sheikh family.


Economy


The city's economy is largely dependent on the oil industry. Some of Iraq's largest oil fields are located in the province, and most of Iraq's oil exports leave from Al Basrah Oil Terminal. The South Oil Company has its headquarter in the city.
Substantial economic activity in Basrah is centered around the petrochemical industry, which includes the Southern Fertilizer Company and The State Company for Petrochemical Industries. The Southern Fertilizer Company produces ammonia solution, urea and nitrogen gas, while the SCPI focus on such products as ethylene, caustic/chlorine, vinyl chlorine monomer (VCM), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), low-density polyethylene, and high-density polyethylene
Basra was known in the 1960s for its sugar market, a fact that figured heavily in the English contract law remoteness of damages case The Heron II [1969] 1 AC 350.


Shipping, logistics and transport are also major industries in Basra. Basra is home to all of Iraq’s six ports; Umm Qasr is the main deep-water port with 22 platforms, some of which are dedicated to specific goods (such as sulfur, seeds, lubricant oil, etc.) The other five ports are smaller in scale and more narrowly specialized. Fishing was an important business before the oil boom.

Baqubah


Baqubah, بعقوبة‎, is the capital of Iraq's Diyala Governorate.
The city is located some 50 km (31 mi) to the northeast of Baghdad, on the Diyala River. In 2003 it had an estimated population of some 467,900 people.
Baqubah served as a way station between Baghdad and Khorasan on the medieval Silk Road. During the Abbasid caliphate, it was known for its date and fruit orchards. Situated on the main road and rail routes between Baghdad and Iran it is a centre of trade for agricultural produce. It is now known as the centre of Iraq's commercial orange groves.


During the course of the U.S.-led occupation of Iraq, Baquba emerged as the scene of some of the heaviest guerrilla activity, along with the Sunni enclaves of Fallujah, Ramadi, and Samarra. It was the site of the heaviest fighting during the June 24, 2004, insurgent offensive. Al-Tawhid Wal-Jihad, led by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, took responsibility for the attacks.
In a setback for insurgents, Iraqi and U.S. officials confirmed on June 8, 2006, that al-Zarqawi had been killed in an airstrike and subsequent raid 8 km (5.0 mi) north of Baquba.  During late 2006, however, Baqubah and much of Diyala province were reported to have come under Sunni insurgent control.  On January 3, 2007 the previous Iraqi government in Baquba was reported to have fallen, leaving the city in the hands of insurgents fighting against the American led coalition in Operation Iraqi Freedom.
In January 2007, it was reported  that Sunni insurgents were able to kidnap the mayor and blow up his office, despite promises from American and Iraqi military officials that the situation in the city was "reassuring and under control". The city at its peak had over 460,000 residents, but a February 2007 report labeled the city a "ghost town" as residents either fled criminal and sectarian violence or remained in hiding at home. 

Balad, Iraq


Balad, بلد‎, is a city (80 kilometres) north of Baghdad in the Salah ad Din Governorate Iraq. It is located within the borders of the so-called Sunni Triangle; however, Balad is a primarily Shiite town of approximately 100,000. It is the principal town of the Balad district.


Located within the municipality of Yethrib, the installation is known officially as Joint Base Balad, formerly LSA Anaconda and Balad Air Base. The name of this base in the Saddam era was Al-Bakir Air Base (Arabic: قاعدة البكر الجوية‎). This base currently hosts several Army and Air Force units, as well as a small attachments of U.S. Navy personnel.
As of early 2007 the base is the central hub for airlift and U.S. Air Force operations in Iraq, it is also a major transshipment point for US Army supply convoys.
Even closer to the actual city of Balad is a tiny FOB (Forward Operating Base) called FOB Paliwoda. Currently home to the 545th MP Company (2nd Plt), the 1-28th ID and a few enablers, it sits on the outskirts of Balad proper.
FOB Paliwoda was occupied by 3rd Squadron 4th US Cavalry in an effort to create a joint effort between coalition and local forces. The unit has disrupted more than 50 million dollars of terrorist organization money due to the hard efforts of Lt. Colonel David M. Hodne and his small unit of 'Raiders', or 'McKenzies Raiders". During the year control of the BJCC, Not one U.S. soldier has lost their life.


Baiji, Iraq


Baiji, بيجي‎, is a city of about 200,000 inhabitants in northern Iraq some 130 miles north of Baghdad, on the main road to Mosul. It is a major industrial centre best known for its oil refinery, the biggest in Iraq and has a large power plant. It also has important weapons and chemical plants.


Baiji was captured with little or no fighting during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. It was briefly thought in late April 2003 that barrels of chemicals found in a storage area near the town contained the nerve agent cyclosarin. Soon afterwards, United States troops discovered an underground oil refinery at Baiji which was initially suspected to be a chemical weapons plant. Both leads eventually proved to be false alarms in the fruitless search for Iraqi weapons of mass destruction.
Following the invasion, Baiji subsequently became the scene of a number of insurgent attacks. The town is at one end of the "Sunni Triangle" region which provided the bedrock of Saddam Hussein's support. The sprawling oil refinery and pipelines have been particularly difficult to protect against guerrillas. There have been repeated attacks on the oil pipelines and other elements of the oil infrastructure.
In October 2003, violent riots broke out in the town in protest against the US-backed police force, which was accused of corruption. US troops restored order, wounding four Iraqis in the process, and sacked the town's police chief, replacing him with a local man elected by tribal elders. A US soldier was killed in the town on October 12. US troops subsequently conducted a number of raids in the town to root out guerrillas, who were publicly supported by some of Baiji's clergy. It was also thought that Saddam Hussein might be hiding in Baiji, prompting raids to find him, before he was eventually captured in December 2003 in the near-by village of ad-Dawr.


Khan al Baghdadi


Khan al Baghdadi or Al Baghdadi is an Iraqi city on the Euphrates River in Al-Anbar province.
It is the closest village to the U.S. Military's Al Asad Airbase, (formerly known as Qadisiyah Airbase when it was operated by the Iraqi Air Force).


Baghdad


Baghdad, بغداد‎, is the capital of Republic of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Province. The population of Baghdad as of 2011 is approximately 7,216,040, making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab World (after Cairo, Egypt), and the second largest city in Western Asia (after Tehran, Iran).
Located along the Tigris River, the city was founded in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. Within a short time of its inception, Baghdad evolved into a significant cultural, commercial, and intellectual center for the Islamic World. This in addition to housing several key academic institutions (e.g. House of Wisdom) garnered the city a worldwide reputation as the "Center of Learning". Throughout the High Middle Ages, Baghdad was considered to be the largest city in the world with an estimated population of 1,200,000 people. The city was largely destroyed at the hands of the Mongol Empire in 1258, resulting in a decline that would linger through many centuries due to frequent plagues and multiple successive empires. With the recognition of Iraq as an independent state (formerly the British Mandate of Mesopotamia) in 1938, Baghdad gradually regained some of its former prominence as a significant center of Arabic culture.


In the middle of Baghdad, in the central square was the Golden Gate Palace. The Palace was the residence of the caliph and his family. In the central part of the building was a green dome that was 39 m high. Surrounding the palace was an esplanade, a waterside building, in which only the caliph could come riding on horseback. In addition, the palace was near other mansions and officer's residences. Near the Gate of Syria a building served as the home for the guards. It was made of brick and marble. The palace governor lived in the latter part of the building and the commander of the guards in the front. In 813, after the death of caliph Al-Mansur the palace was no longer used as the home for the caliph and his family. The roundness points to the fact that it was based on Arabic script. The two designers who were hired by al-Mansur to plan the city's design were Naubakht, a Zoroastrian who also determined that the date of the foundation of the city would be astrologically auspicious, and Mashallah, a Jew from Khorasan, Iran


Points of interest include the National Museum of Iraq whose priceless collection of artifacts was looted during the 2003 invasion, and the iconic Hands of Victory arches. Multiple Iraqi parties are in discussions as to whether the arches should remain as historical monuments or be dismantled. Thousands of ancient manuscripts in the National Library were destroyed when it was set alight by the library staff and looters before and during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
The Al Kadhimain Shrine in the northwest of Baghdad (in al-Kāżimiyyah) is one of the most important Shi'ite religious sites in Iraq. It was finished in 1515 and the 7th (Musa ibn Jafar al-Kathim) and the 9th Imams (Mohammed Al-Jawad) were buried there. One of the oldest buildings is the 12th century or 13th century Abbasid Palace. The palace is part of the central historical area of the city and close to other historically important buildings such as the Saray Building and Al-Mustansiriyah School (From the Abbasid Period). Baghdad International Airport (BIAP) is Iraq's largest airport located 16 km from Baghdad's central business district. It is the home of Iraq's national airline, Iraqi Airways.


Some of the important cultural institutions in the city include:
Iraqi National Orchestra – Rehearsals and performances were briefly interrupted during the Second Gulf War, but have since returned to normal.
National Theatre of Iraq – The theatre was looted during the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, but efforts are underway to restore the theatre.
The live theatre scene received a boost during the 1990s when UN sanctions limited the import of foreign films. As many as 30 movie theatres were reported to have been converted to live stages, producing a wide range of comedies and dramatic productions.
Institutions offering cultural education in Baghdad include the Academy of Music, Institute of Fine Arts, and the Music and Ballet school Baghdad. Baghdad is also home to a number of museums which housed artifacts and relics of ancient civilization; many of these were stolen, and the museums looted, during the widespread chaos immediately after United States forces entered the city.
During the 2003 occupation of Iraq, AFN Iraq ("Freedom Radio") broadcast news and entertainment within Baghdad, among other locations. There is also a private radio station called "Dijlah" (named after the Arabic word for the Tigris River) that was created in 2004 as Iraq's first independent talk radio station. Radio Dijlah offices, in the Jamia neighborhood of Baghdad, have been attacked on several occasions.


Baghdad is home to some of the most successful football (soccer) teams in Iraq, the biggest being Al Quwa Al Jawiya (Airforce club), Al Zawra, Al Shurta (Police), and Al Talaba (Students). The largest stadium in Baghdad is Al Shaab Stadium which was opened in 1966. Another, but much larger stadium, is still in the opening stages of construction.
The city has also had a strong tradition of horse racing ever since World War I, known to Baghdadis simply as 'Races'. There are reports of pressures by the Islamists to stop this tradition due to the associated gambling

Erbil


Erbil, اربيل‎ Arbīl; Kurdish: هه‌ولێر‎ Hewlêr; Sumerian: Urbilum; Syriac-Aramaic: ܐܪܒܝܠ Arbaelo) is, with a population of approximately 1.3 million (2009), the fourth largest city in Iraq after Baghdad, Basra and Mosul. It is located 80 kilometres (50 miles) east of Mosul, and is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan.
Urban life at Erbil can be dated back to at least 6000 BC, and it is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. At the heart of the city is the ancient Citadel of Arbil. The Hurrians were the first to establish Urbilum and expand their rule to the rest of northern Mesopotamia. The city has since been under the rule of many regional powers, including the Assyrians, the Babylonians, the Persians, the Arabs, and the Ottomans. Erbil's archaeological museum houses a large collection of pre-Islamic artefacts, and is a center for archaeological projects in the area.


The Citadel of Arbil is a tell or occupied mound, in the historical heart of Erbil, rising between 25 and 32 metres (82 and 105 ft) from the surrounding plain. The buildings on top of the tell stretch over a roughly oval area of 430 by 340 metres (1,410 × 1,120 ft) occupying 102,000 square metres (1,100,000 sq ft). It has been claimed that the site is the oldest continuously inhabited town in the world. The earliest evidence for occupation of the citadel mound dates to the 5th millennium BC, and possibly earlier. It appears for the first time in historical sources during the Ur III period, and gained particular importance during the Neo-Assyrian period. West of the citadel at Ary Kon quarter, a chamber tomb dating to the Neo-Assyrian period has been excavated.During the Sassanian period and the Abbasid Caliphate, Erbil was an important centre for Christianity. After the Mongols captured the citadel in 1258, the importance of Erbil declined.


The covered Erbil Qaysari Bazaars, sometimes known as Kaisary market, lies below the main entrance to the citadel and stocks mainly household goods and tools.
The 36 m high Mudhafaria Minaret, situated in Minaret Park several blocks from the citadel, dates back to the late 12th century AD and the reign of Erbil king Muzaffar Al-Din Abu Sa’eed Al-Kawkaboori. It has an octagonal base decorated with two tiers of niches, which is separated from the main shaft by a small balcony, also decorated. Another historical minaret with turquoise glazed tiles is nearby.
Sami Rahman Park
Franso Hariri Stadium
The Mound of Qalich Agha lies within the grounds of the Museum of Civilization, 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) from the citadel. An excavation in 1996 found tools from the Halaf, Ubaid and Uruk periods.
Kurdish Textile Museum


The local major football team is Arbil SC which plays its football matches at Franso Hariri Stadium which is based in the south part of central Erbil. Erbil SC were the first Kurdish team to make it to theAFC Champions league.

Ar Rutba


Ar Rutbah, الرطبة‎, also known as Rutba, Rutbah, or Ar Rutba) is an Iraqi town in western Al Anbar province. The population is approximately 55,000. It occupies a strategic location on the Amman-Baghdad road, and the Mosul–Haifa oil pipeline. Considered a "wet spot", it receives 114.3 mm (4.5 inches) of rain annually, and is located on a high plateau


Persian Gulf War
Due to Rutbah's strategic location, the town has played a role in later conflicts between the United States and Iraq. During the Persian Gulf War of 1991 it was reportedly a Scud launching location[citation needed].


Operation Iraqi Freedom


After the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, the base was occupied by the Army's 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment and was known as FOB Buzz. An Army Captain was charged and court-martialed for staging mock executions of Iraqi prisoners.


Arrival of U.S. Marines
In 2004, Marines from Regimental Combat Team 7 relieved the Army soldiers and took control of the city, resolving to engage the populace more proactively. By July 2004, Camp Korean Village, a Marine logistical support base, was established nearby. The base currently serves as a regional air field, convoy rest stop, shock trauma hospital and headquarters of the local Marine garrison. The base is supposedly located on the site of a village formerly used to house Korean construction workers working on the Amman - Baghdad highway.) This fact has not been proven: the base was named Korean Village by Americans, however not even the top commanders in Iraq know the origins of the name.
On January 26, 2005, a Marine CH-53E Super Stallion helicopter crashed outside of town, killing 30 Marines and one Navy corpsman.  This was the single deadliest day for American forces in the Iraq conflict. The cause of the crash was a severe wind storm that had come upon them expectantly.
By March 2006, the city was being guarded by elements of the 2nd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion (LAR) and an Iraqi rifle company from the 3d Brigade, 7th Infantry Division, Iraqi Army. U.S. and Iraqi forces had built a 7-foot (2.1 m)-high and 20-foot (6.1 m)-wide berm in order to restrict access into the city from all but 3 guarded vehicle checkpoints. This was done to restrict weapons and explosives smuggling into the city and force insurgent elements to hide weapons caches in the open desert, as well as reduce the number of roadside bombs inside the populated areas.


Current Conditions


In addition to providing basic security, Coalition forces, especially US Marines, have recently focused on providing other aid to residents of Rutbah. This aid comes in a variety of forms, including food and water, as well as agricultural and educational needs. The forces are also addressing infrastructure elements, such as repairing electrical power grids. These efforts are designed to help citizens of the town to complete the transition away from reliance on Coalition forces.

Amarah


Amarah, العمارة, is a city in southeastern Iraq, located on a low ridge next to the Tigris River waterway south of Baghdad about 50 km from the border with Iran. It lies at the northern tip of the marshlands between the Tigris and Euphrates.
Predominantly Shia Muslim, it had a population of about 340,000 as of 2002 and about 420,000 as of 2005. It is the administrative capital of the Maysan province. A major trading center for the surrounding agricultural area, it is known for woven goods and silverware.


During the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the city made a final stand as a center of resistance to Saddam Hussein. The city was soon occupied by British forces, which set up two camps. Local residents hired diggers to unearth the bodies in the mass grave after twelve years. However, in June 2003, citizens of Amarah took up arms against patrolling British forces, killing six soldiers each in two separate attacks, south of the City in Majar Al Kabir. The British bases frequently experienced mortar attacks afterward. The books Sniper One by Sergeant Daniel Mills, Dusty Warriors by Richard Holmes and Barefoot Soldier by Lance Corporal Johnson Beharry VC all contain very good accounts on the events in Al Amarah during this period.
After the British handed power over to the Iraqi government, a power struggle erupted between Shi'ite loyalists of the Mahdi Army and Badr Brigades. A number of assassinations occurred in the city between the rival factions. After the brother of a Mahdi Army commander was captured, the Mahdi Army captured least three police stations and other state facilities on October 20, 2006, resulting in at least twenty-two deaths, three of which were children. Iraqi Army and British advisers arrived from Basra the next day to secure a truce with Sadr representatives.
On June 18, 2008, the Iraqi Army launched a major operation in Amarah to wrest the city from the control of militias loyal to Moqtada al Sadr and to reduce the flow of weapons and Shiite militants transiting through the city from nearby Iran. The operation, codenamed Promise of Peace (Bashir Al Salem in Arabic), followed significant Iraqi Army operations in Basra, the Sadr City neighborhood of Baghdad, and Mosul in the first half of 2008.
During this time, the 4th Brigade of the US Army's 1st Cavalry Division established a semi-permanent presence in the province by constructing two large operating bases in the Province and several smaller company outposts. Specific within 4th Brigade, Amarah and its surrounding towns were covered by 2nd Battalion of the 7th Cavalry Regiment, which established FOB Garryowen just west of the city proper. 
Throughout 2008 and 2009 over 2,000 US troops from the 1st Cavalry Division partnered with the Iraqi Army, police, and the Border Enforcement Brigade in the Province to defeat Shia extremism and interdict illicit arms smuggling across the Iranian border. Working closely with British investigators and Iraqi police, US troops also successfully detained 11 out of 17 individuals who were wanted for the murder of British soldiers in Majr Al Khabir back in 2003. All 11 suspects are now facing murder charges in a Baghdad court.

Hillah


Hillah, الحلة, is a city in central Iraq on the Hilla branch of the Euphrates River, 100 km (62 mi) south of Baghdad. The population is estimated at 364,700 in 1998. It is the capital of Babylon Province and is located adjacent to the ancient city of Babylon, and close to the ancient cities of Borsippa and Kish. It is situated in a predominantly agricultural region which is extensively irrigated with water provided by the Hilla canal, producing a wide range of cereals, fruit and textiles.
The city was once a major center of Islamic scholarship and education. The tomb of the Jewish prophet Ezekiel is reputed to be located in a nearby village.
It became a major administrative centre during the rule of the Ottoman and British Empires. In the 19th century, the Hilla branch of the Euphrates started to silt up and much agricultural land was lost to drought, but this process was reversed by the construction of the Hindiya Barrage in 1911–1913, which diverted water from the deeper Hindiya branch of the Euphrates into the Hilla canal. It saw heavy fighting in 1920 during an uprising against the British, when 300 men of the Manchester Regiment were apparently defeated in the city.[citation needed] It is said to be where the Hanging Gardens of Babylon once were.


Hillah was the scene of relatively heavy fighting in the 2003 invasion of Iraq on and around April 1, 2003. Iraqi casualties from the Medina Division of the Republican Guard were unknown but heavy, with several hundred reported to have been killed in fierce fighting with the United States Army (2-70th Armor, Ft. Riley, KS). After the battle with the RG Medina Division the US Army forces moved to Baghdad and the U.S. Marine forces took over responsibilities in Al Hillah.
Shortly after the invasion a mass grave site was reported by locals to be in the area around Hillah. Local citizens and members of ORHA worked together to exhume thousands of Iraqis who had been murdered by Saddam Hussein's security forces during the uprising against his government in 1991.
The 1st Marine Division had established a base at one of Saddam Hussein's Palaces about one mile north of Hillah. This also happened to be the historical site of Babylon and further damaged the ruins of the ancient city.


 The 372nd Military Police Company had performed law and order and Iraqi Police training in the city from June 2003 to October 2003 prior to moving on to Abu Ghraib prison. The city was part of the Polish military zone under the occupation of Iraq.
After the initial invasion, Hilla was relatively peaceful, but it then became the scene of numerous bomb attacks.

Al Diwaniyah


Al Diwaniyah, الديوانية‎, is the capital city of Iraq's Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate. In 2002, its population was estimated at 440,927. The area around Al Diwaniyah, which is well irrigated from the nearby Euphrates river, is often considered to be one on the most fertile parts of Iraq, and is heavily cultivated. The town is located on the main rail transport corridor between Baghdad and Basra.For birdwatchers, Al-Diwaniyah is a city with a rich bird list, as the city has a wide range of biodiversity. Al-Qadisiyah consists of vast agricultural areas, wetlands, arid zones, and semi-desert areas.The town is the site of a tire manufacturing plant that once provided tires for much of Iraq. The plant is currently active.Al-Diwaniyah is the headquarters of the Iraqi Army's 8th Division (Iraq).


Al-Awja



Al-Awja, العوجا‎, also known as Owja, Al-Auja or Al-Ouja) is a village 8 miles (13 km) south of Tikrit, in Iraq on the western bank of the Tigris.It was the birth place of the former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein in 1937 and home of many of the leaders of Iraqi provinces during his Presidency over Iraq.When Saddam was found by the 4th Infantry Division, he was hiding only a few miles from his hometown in the town of ad-Dawr. Saddam Hussein was buried in this village before dawn on December 31, 2006, less than 24 hours after his execution took place for his major responsibility in crimes against humanity in Iraq.



Ad-Dawr


Ad-Dawr,الدور, (the same pronunciation of the English word "door") is a small agricultural town near the Iraqi town of Tikrit, Saddam Hussein's birthplace.
The town is populated mainly by Arabs. There is a housing complex called Saad 14 which was built by Hyundai Engineering & Constructions Inc. in the 1980s. The most famous modern Arab historian scholars is of this town, Prof. Dr. Abdul Aziz Al-Douri (1918–2010), the chancellor of Baghdad University in the 1960s.


In May 2003, the 4th Battalion 42nd Field Artillery, part of the US Army's 4th Infantry Division, established a Forward Operating Base just south of the town, called FOB Arrow. On May 15, 2003, troops from the U.S. Army's 4th Infantry Division raided the town, arresting more than 260 suspected Baath Party supporters.
The vast majority were soon released but five Iraqi special security forces officers were reported captured, including two Iraqi army generals and a general from Saddam's security forces who had disguised himself as a shepherd.
On 13 August 2003, a soldier was killed near FOB Arrow when his vehicle hit an Anti-Tank mine.
An attack near ad-Dawr killed three American soldiers and injured three on 18 September 2003.
The 4th Infantry Division's 4th Battalion 42nd Field Artillery, along with elements of the 124th Signal Battalion adopted the Nasiba Primary School for Girls in the town and completed its refurbishment in November 2003.
On December 13, 2003, the 4th Infantry Division's 1st Brigade Combat Team conducted Operation Red Dawn and found Saddam Hussein hiding in a spider hole in front of a hut occupied by a man believed to be his former cook, Qais Namuk.


Parallel communication



In telecommunication and computer science, parallel communication is a method of sending several data signals simultaneously over several parallel channels. It contrasts with serial communication; this distinction is one way of characterizing a communications link.
The basic difference between a parallel and a serial communication channel is the number of distinct wires or strands at the physical layer used for simultaneous transmission from a device. Parallel communication implies more than one such wire/strand, in addition to a ground connection. An 8-bit parallel channel transmits eight bits (or a byte) simultaneously. A serial channel would transmit those bits one at a time. If both operated at the same clock speed, the parallel channel would be eight times faster. A parallel channel will generally have additional control signals such as a clock, to indicate that the data is valid, and possibly other signals for handshaking and directional control of data transmission.


Examples of parallel communication systems


Computer peripheral buses: ISA, ATA, SCSI, PCI and Front side bus, and the once-ubiquitous IEEE-1284 / Centronics "printer port"
Laboratory Instrumentation bus IEEE-488




Comparison with serial links


Before the development of high-speed serial technologies, the choice of parallel links over serial links was driven by these factors:
Speed: Superficially, the speed of a parallel data link is equal to the number of bits sent at one time times the bit rate of each individual path; doubling the number of bits sent at once doubles the data rate. In practice, clock skew reduces the speed of every link to the slowest of all of the links.
Cable length: Crosstalk creates interference between the parallel lines, and the effect worsens with the length of the communication link. This places an upper limit on the length of a parallel data connection that is usually shorter than a serial connection.


Complexity: Parallel data links are easily implemented in hardware, making them a logical choice. Creating a parallel port in a computer system is relatively simple, requiring only a latch to copy data onto a data bus. In contrast, most serial communication must first be converted back into parallel form by a universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) before they may be directly connected to a data bus.

Federal Standard 1037C


Federal Standard 1037C, titled Telecommunications: Glossary of Telecommunication Terms is a United States Federal Standard, issued by the General Services Administration pursuant to the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended.
This document provides Federal departments and agencies a comprehensive source of definitions of terms used in telecommunications and directly related fields by international and U.S. Government telecommunications specialists.
As a publication of the U.S. Government, prepared by an agency of the U.S. Government, it appears to be mostly available as a public domain resource, but a few items are derived from copyrighted sources: where this is the case, there is an attribution to the source.
This standard was superseded in 2001 by American National Standard T1.523-2001, Telecom Glossary 2000, which is published by ATIS. The old standard is still frequently used, because the new standard is not in the public domain.


Types of wireless networks


Wireless PAN
Wireless personal area networks (WPANs) interconnect devices within a relatively small area, that is generally within a person's reach. For example, both Bluetooth radio and invisible infrared light provides a WPAN for interconnecting a headset to a laptop. ZigBee also supports WPAN applications. Wi-Fi PANs are becoming commonplace (2010) as equipment designers start to integrate Wi-Fi into a variety of consumer electronic devices. Intel "My WiFi" and Windows 7 "virtual Wi-Fi" capabilities have made Wi-Fi PANs simpler and easier to set up and configure.


Wireless LAN


A wireless local area network (WLAN) links two or more devices over a short distance using a wireless distribution method, usually providing a connection through an access point for Internet access. The use of spread-spectrum or OFDM technologies may allow users to move around within a local coverage area, and still remain connected to the network.
Products using the IEEE 802.11 WLAN standards are marketed under the Wi-Fi brand name. Fixed wireless technology implements point-to-point links between computers or networks at two distant locations, often using dedicated microwave or modulated laser light beams over line of sight paths. It is often used in cities to connect networks in two or more buildings without installing a wired link.


Wireless mesh network


A wireless mesh network is a wireless network made up of radio nodes organized in a mesh topology. Each node forwards messages on behalf of the other nodes. Mesh networks can "self heal", automatically re-routing around a node that has lost power.
[edit]Wireless MAN
Wireless metropolitan area networks are a type of wireless network that connects several wireless LANs.
WiMAX is a type of Wireless MAN and is described by the IEEE 802.16 standard.[6]
[edit]Wireless WAN
Wireless wide area networks are wireless networks that typically cover large areas, such as between neighboring towns and cities, or city and suburb. These networks can be used to connect branch offices of business or as a public internet access system. The wireless connections between access points are usually point to point microwave links using parabolic dishes on the 2.4 GHz band, rather than omnidirectional antennas used with smaller networks. A typical system contains base station gateways, access points and wireless bridging relays. Other configurations are mesh systems where each access point acts as a relay also. When combined with renewable energy systems such as photo-voltaic solar panels or wind systems they can be stand alone systems.


Mobile devices networks


With the development of smartphones, cellular telephone networks routinely carry data in addition to telephone conversations:
Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM): The GSM network is divided into three major systems: the switching system, the base station system, and the operation and support system. The cell phone connects to the base system station which then connects to the operation and support station; it then connects to the switching station where the call is transferred to where it needs to go. GSM is the most common standard and is used for a majority of cell phones.
Personal Communications Service (PCS): PCS is a radio band that can be used by mobile phones in North America and South Asia. Sprint happened to be the first service to set up a PCS.
D-AMPS: Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Service, an upgraded version of AMPS, is being phased out due to advancement in technology. The newer GSM networks are replacing the older system.


Uses


Some examples of usage include cellular phones which are part of everyday wireless networks, allowing easy personal communications. Another example, Inter-continental network systems, use radio satellites to communicate across the world. Emergency services such as the police utilize wireless networks to communicate effectively as well. Individuals and businesses use wireless networks to send and share data rapidly, whether it be in a small office building or across the world.


General
In a general sense, wireless networks offer a vast variety of uses by both business and home users.
"Now, the industry accepts a handful of different wireless technologies. Each wireless technology is defined by a standard that describes unique functions at both the Physical and the Data Link layers of the OSI Model. These standards differ in their specified signaling methods, geographic ranges, and frequency usages, among other things. Such differences can make certain technologies better suited to home networks and others better suited to network larger organizations."


Performance
Each standard varies in geographical range, thus making one standard more ideal than the next depending on what it is one is trying to accomplish with a wireless network. The performance of wireless networks satisfies a variety of applications such as voice and video. The use of this technology also gives room for future expansions. As wireless networking has become commonplace, sophistication increased through configuration of network hardware and software.


Space
Space is another characteristic of wireless networking. Wireless networks offer many advantages when it comes to difficult-to-wire areas trying to communicate such as across a street or river, a warehouse on the other side of the premise or buildings that are physically separated but operate as one. Wireless networks allow for users to designate a certain space which the network will be able to communicate with other devices through that network. Space is also created in homes as a result of eliminating clutters of wiring. This techonology allows for an alternative to installing physical network mediums such as TPs, coaxes, or fiber-optics, which can also be expensive.


Home
For homeowners, wireless technology is an effective option as compared to ethernet for sharing printers, scanners, and high speed internet connections. WLANs help save from the cost of installation of cable mediums, save time from physical installation, and also creates mobility for devices connected to the network. Wireless networks are simple and require one single wireless access point connected directly to the Internet via a router.


Environmental concerns


Starting around 2009, there have been increased concerns about the safety of wireless communications, despite little evidence of health risks so far. The president of Lakehead University refused to agree to installation of a wireless network citing a California Public Utilities Commission study which said that the possible risk of tumors and other diseases due to exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) needs to be further investigated.
Wireless access points are also often close to humans, but the drop off in power over distance is fast, following the inverse-square law. The HPA's position is that “...radio frequency (RF) exposures from WiFi are likely to be lower than those from mobile phones.” It also saw “...no reason why schools and others should not use WiFi equipment.” In October 2007, the HPA launched a new “systematic” study into the effects of WiFi networks on behalf of the UK government, in order to calm fears that had appeared in the media in a recent period up to that time". Dr Michael Clark, of the HPA, says published research on mobile phones and masts does not add up to an indictment of WiFi.

Wireless network

Wireless network refers to any type of computer network that is not connected by cables of any kind. It is a method by which homes, telecommunications networks and enterprise (business) installations avoid the costly process of introducing cables into a building, or as a connection between various equipment locations. Wireless telecommunications networks are generally implemented and administered using a transmission system called radio waves. This implementation takes place at the physical level (layer) of the OSI model network structure


Bus network



A bus network topology is a network architecture in which a set of clients are connected via a shared communications line, called a bus. There are several common instances of the bus architecture, including one in the motherboard of most computers, and those in some versions of Ethernet networks.


Bus networks are the simplest way to connect multiple clients, but may have problems when two clients want to transmit at the same time on the same bus. Thus systems which use bus network architectures normally have some scheme of collision handling or collision avoidance for communication on the bus, quite often using Carrier Sense Multiple Access or the presence of a bus master which controls access to the shared bus resource.
A true bus network is passive –a host computer has one or two LANCARD in bus topology for connect the network. the computers on the bus simply listen for a signal; they are not responsible for moving the signal along. However, many active architectures can also be described as a "bus", as they provide the same logical functions as a passive bus; for example, switched Ethernet can still be regarded as a logical network, if not a physical one. Indeed, the hardware may be abstracted away completely in the case of a software bus.
With the dominance of switched Ethernet over passive Ethernet, passive bus networks are uncommon in wired networks. However, almost all current wireless networks can be viewed as examples of passive bus networks, with radio propagation serving as the shared passive medium.
The bus topology makes the addition of new devices straightforward. The term used to describe clients is station or workstation in this type of network. Bus network topology uses a broadcast channel which means that all attached stations can hear every transmission and all stations have equal priority in using the network to transmit data.


The Ethernet bus topology works like a big telephone party line — before any device can send a packet, devices on the bus must first determine that no other device is sending a packet on the cable. When a device sends its packet out over the bus, every other network card on the bus sees and reads the packet. Ethernet’s scheme of having devices communicate like they were in chat room is called Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). Sometimes two cards talk (send packets) at the same time. This creates a collision, and the cards themselves arbitrate to decide which one will resend its packet first. All PCs on a bus network share a common wire, which also means they share the data transfer capacity of that wire – or, in tech terms, they share its bandwidth.

Optical mesh network


Optical mesh networks are a type of telecommunications network.
Transport networks, the underlying optical fiber-based layer of telecommunications networks, have evolved from DCS (Digital Cross-connect Systems)-based mesh architectures in the 1980s, to SONET/SDH (Synchronous Optical Networking/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) ring architectures in the 1990s. Technological advancements in optical transport equipment in the first decade of the 21st century, along with continuous deployment of DWDM systems, have led telecommunications service providers to replace their SONET ring architectures by mesh-based architectures. The new optical mesh networks support the same fast recovery previously available in ring networks while achieving better capacity efficiency and resulting in lower capital cost.
Optical mesh networks today not only provide trunking capacity to higher-layer networks, such as inter-router or inter-switch connectivity in an IP, MPLS, or Ethernet-centric infrastructure, but also support efficient routing and fast failure recovery of high-bandwidth services. This was made possible by the emergence of optical network elements that have the intelligence required to automatically control certain network functions, such as fault recovery.
Optical mesh networks enable Quality-of-Service protection and a variety of dynamic services such as bandwidth-on-demand, Just-In-Time bandwidth, bandwidth scheduling, bandwidth brokering, and optical virtual private networks that open up new opportunities for service providers and their customers alike.


Optical mesh networks


Optical mesh networks refer to transport networks that are built directly off the mesh-like fiber infrastructure deployed in metropolitan, regional, national, or international (e.g., trans-oceanic) areas by deploying optical transport equipment that are capable of switching traffic (at the wavelength or sub-wavelength level) from an incoming fiber to an outgoing fiber. In addition to switching wavelengths, the equipment is typically also able to multiplex lower speed traffic into wavelengths for transport, and to groom traffic (as long as the equipment is so-called opaque - see subsection on transparency). Finally, these equipment also provide for the recovery of traffic in case of a network failure. As most of the transport networks evolve toward mesh topologies utilizing intelligent network elements (optical cross-connects or optical switches ) for provisioning and recovery of services, new approaches have been developed for the design, deployment, operations and management of mesh optical networks.


Optical switches build by companies such as Sycamore and Ciena (with STS-1 granularity of switching) and Tellium (with STS-48 granularity of switching) have been deployed in operational mesh networks. Calient has built all-optical switches based on 3D MEMS technology.
Optical mesh networks today not only provide trunking capacity to higher-layer networks, such as inter-router or inter-switch connectivity in an IP, MPLS, or Ethernet-centric packet infrastructure, but also support efficient routing and fast failure recovery of high-bandwidth point-to-point Ethernet and SONET/SDH services.